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June 2015 Archives

Top DRE Audit #6: Trust Fund Handling for Multiple Beneficiaries (Trust Fund Shortage)

Regulation 2832.1 requires the real estate broker to obtain written consent from every owner of the trust funds in the bank account prior to each disbursement if the disbursement will reduce the balance of the funds in the bank account to an amount less than the existing trust fund liability of the broker to all owners of the funds. A trust fund shortage therefore exists when the following conditions are present:


  • The balance of the bank account is less that the total trust fund liability of the broker to all owners of the funds; and

  • There is no written authorization from all owners of the trust funds allowing this.


The most obvious reason for a trust fund shortage is the intentional misuse (conversion) of trust funds. However, simple record keeping errors that remain undetected could result in trust fund shortages and an actual loss of funds. Failure to record a disbursement, or understating the amount of a check disbursed, or overstating the amount of a deposit on the beneficiary ledger/record will cause the beneficiary ledger to show a balance that is larger than the true amount owed to the individual beneficiary. This overstated balance on the ledger is more likely to be paid and, consequently, the beneficiary will be paid more than what is due. The end result is a trust fund shortage.

Top DRE Audit #5: Trust Account Reconciliation

Regulation 2831.2 requires that the total of all Separate Beneficiary or Transaction Records maintained pursuant to Regulation 2831.1 be reconciled with the balance of the Record of All Trust Funds Received and Paid Out required by Regulation 2831, at least once a month except when the bank account did not have any activities. The requirement is that the accounting records be reconciled to each other. This is not only a legal requirement, this is also part of a sound internal control for trust fund handling.

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